Category Archives: Dept of Defense

Univ. of Hawaii – U.S. Pacific Command Partnership

The University of Hawaii (UH) and the U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) signed a Memorandum of Understanding that outlines the two organization's collaborative efforts to improve and solve sustainability and resiliency issues in the Asia Pacific region. The three signatories of the MOU were UH President M.R.C. Greenwood, Adm. Robert F. Willard, Commander of U.S. Pacific Command and UH Chancellor Virginia Hinshaw. Both Admiral Willard and President Greenwood admitted when the group first got together in January 2011, both organizations were apprehensive about how this relationship would take shape, if at all. Historically the relationship between the University of Hawaii and the U.S. military has seen it's ups and downs. President Greenwood said, "We are the two most influential and powerful institutions in the State of Hawaii, and yet we have not found the ways and connections to work together." But as a result of the conference in January, the two groups were able to craft a framework for an ongoing partnership. Colleagues commented later to Greenwood that this should have been done a long time ago. The MOU identified three key area for immediate focus: Energy, Water and Disaster Management. Some of near term partnering areas include:
  1. Examine implementing alternative energy sources for PACOM installations and on certain humanitarian assistance projects;
  2. Leverage UH capability and training to complement and support PACOM roles in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief work around the region;
  3. Build on UH and PACOM capabilities in a variety of water projects, particularly leveraging interests in the lower Mekong;
  4. Define partnership projects in some aspect of ocean fisheries and maritime security.
They each emphasized taking immediate action on near term projects so that the success of working together would create traction. One project that comes to mind is the School of Nursing working with the Pacific Partnership and the hospital ship USN Mercy. Key members of the steering committee include Rear Admiral Robin M. Watters, Dr. Rich Berry for PACOM and Dr. Gary Ostrander and Dr. David Lassner for the Univ. of Hawaii. It will be interesting to see what projects result from this relationship and whether or not they achieve the traction needed to keep a partnership like this viable over the years. If they can accomplish this Hawaii will certainly benefit. * Photo courtesy of Dallas Nagata White

Hawaii to Antarctica

LC-130 Operation Deep FreezeHawaii has a connection to deep space with the telescopes on Mauna Kea and the deep ocean with the anti-neutrino detector, it wouldn't surprise me that Hawaii has a connection with the Antarctic. And sure enough it is with a project called Operation Deep Freeze. The US presence in Antarctica started as far back as 1955 with the name Operation Deep Freeze. That name continues to this day referring to US operations in that continent and in particular to the regular missions to resupply the US Antarctic bases there. Since 1996 the Air National Guard, 109th Airlift Wing became the primary support squadron for the National Science Foundation (NSF) mission in Antarctica. Geographically, Antarctica is part of the Pacific theater with command center at Hickam AFB but the planes that fly missions to the continent are from the 109th Airlift Wing based at Schenectady County Airport in New York. This past Monday, 10/18/10, one of the ski equipped LC-130s was in Hawaii on its way to Antarctica for the start of the 2010-2011 Operation Deep Freeze. Along with the ski-wheels another interesting aspect of the LC-130 Hercules aircraft are these curious latches on the side of the fuselage. On close inspection you can see the acronym JATO or Jet Assisted Take Off. Apparently when taking off on the cold, icy surface of Antarctica, the drag on the skis could hamper the plane ability to reach lift velocity. Extra jet engines are latched onto the aircraft to give it an extra boost for take off, hence the name. You can see the JATO in action in this video of an LC-130 taking off on an icy runway. I got a chance to do a quick interview with Col. Gary James as they prepped this LC-130 before heading to Christchurch, New Zealand. I asked him about their mission before flying over to McMurdo Station, Antarctica where the National Science Foundation has their base camp. In addition to PACAF and Hickam AFB being a transit point for Operation Deep Freeze, it was announced this week that the Univ. of Hawaii Physics Dept. was awarded $1.4M by NASA for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment. The ANITA project involves an array of antenna which listens to cosmic high energy neutrinos as they interact deep within the ice sheet. The antenna array is part of a payload that floats over the surface of the Antarctica ice field tethered to a ballon the side of a stadium. UH Professor Peter Gorham is the principle investigator whom we've asked to come onto Bytemarks Cafe on Wed. December 1st. Stay tuned for that show as we talk about neutrinos, UH Physics, ANITA and missions to Antarctica.

Global Hawk Arrives at Andersen AFB, Guam

Global Hawk CeremonyOn Sept. 20, 2010 the RQ-4 Global Hawk was unveiled at Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. I had the honor and privilege of joining a group of civic leaders as guests of Gen. Gary North, Pacific Air Forces, at the ceremony for the arrival of the Global Hawk. This unmanned aerial vehicle is designed for missions to provide intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) in the Pacific region. Global Hawk as the capability of staying in the air for longer than 30 hours at altitudes of more than 60,000 feet. It's range can cover a distance of 3000 miles which includes the area as far south as Australia and north to Mongolia. Air Force personnel manage the Global Hawk missions from distributed ground stations. The launch recovery element (LRE) is handled from Andersen AFB and mission control element (MCE) takes place in Beale AFB in CA. The following video is of Gen. Gary North speaking at the Global Hawk ceremony. You can also follow along with this transcript of Gen. North's speech at Andersen AFB, Guam on Sept. 20, 2010.
And certainly let me add that my thanks to everyone who has put this ceremony together, it's really a welcome, Congressman Bordallo and certainly General Goldhorn and for all the leaders that are here both from the local community, from the local Hawaii community that we brought down to view this. It is a significant day for not only for our United States Air Force, not only the US Pacific Command, but certainly the significant day for all of the men and women who protect our nation, our nation's interest and certainly the interest of those nations that are friends, allies and partners in the region. We are very grateful for the chance to be able to bring the Global Hawk to the 36th Wing and to Andersen Air Force Base. It is truly a privilege to be here today, for General Douchette, thank you for allow us to come down once again to be able to represent the over 42,000 active Guard, Reserve and civilian men and women of the Pacific Air Forces who have enabled the Global Hawk's arrival and abed down today. It is certainly an important day in our Air Forces ability to both modernize and integrate our intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities into the greater Pacific region. America, it's allies, it's partners and friends, have come to expect information dominance over the battle space, combat operations and the dominance that protects the safety, security and stability around the World. The RQ-4 which we all know as the Global Hawk is our Air Forces newest high altitude, long endurance remotely piloted aircraft capable of flying at altitudes of over 50,000 ft. and staying airborne for over 30 hours. It gives us incredible capacity and certainly after the event we would invite everyone over as we recognize our industry partners and Mr. Duke Dufresne will offer the one-fifth scale Global Hawk to the 36th Wing. You will be able to see some of the capability that the platform executes in day to day operations. This aircraft along with our other intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance platforms will improve our ability to support a number or regional missions to include humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, anti-piracy, anti-terrorism and also to demonstrate as we do every day in the Middle East that our capability to integrate this into combat operations will require -- is absolutely paramount for our ability to have information dominance. The Global Hawk has unique capabilities and those capabilities align now with Guam's position as the third leg of our Pacific Strategic Triangle and certainly that of the Pacific Air Forces make Andersen Air Force Base the ideal location to bed the aircraft down. Along with our other Pacific Air Forces forward based platforms as you saw today as you came into the Hangar. In Andersen Air Force Base's rotational bomber force and the forces of our tankers and fighters help insure that our US Air Force maintains close security and stability in the Pacific and certainly along side the Air Forces of our allies, friends and partners in the region. This Global Hawk will provide a proven ISR capability to our combatant commanders. It is one that has already logged over 45,000 hours of flying time, 35,000 hours of which has been in combat operations in the Middle East. It's suite of infrared, electro-optical and synthetic aperture radar systems will allow it to collect high resolution imagery day and night, in any weather. You will again be able to see some of that capability in the reception after this event. It has a range that will allow it to employ more than half way around the world. In fact it flew non-stop from the contiguous 48 for its recent arrival here. As I said it has the capability to stay aloft for in excess of over 30 hours. And with that capability varied with its sensors it will be able to pinpoint after surveilling large geographic areas with absolute accuracy that is needed in today's environment. Basing this platform here in Guam minimizes what we all know in the Pacific as called the Tyranny of Distance. And it will allow us to integrate and synchronize the capabilities of Global Hawk with other platform capacity of both manned and unmanned in this region. It will allow us to effectively support contingency operations throughout the region, demonstrating both to our friends and our partners and our allies and others that our United States Air Force continues to modernize and ensure that we can meet the directives in the environment as directed by our senior leaders and in support in the wide range of missions of our friends, partners and allies. It will provide an unrivaled, clear, realtime intelligence to those who need this requirement. For instance right now, as we sit among the capacity of our nation both manned and remotely piloted, remotely piloted Global Hawks are being flown in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Helping to provide critical imagery of time sensitive targets like IED support, insurgent hideouts or weapons caches. This information is send from the airborne platform down our distributed ground stations around the world where airmen and other service members can rapidly process and push back the intelligence gathered to not only warfighters but senior decision makers from the strategic all the way down to the tactical warfighter at the platoon level. So this is the information that will allow us to make strategic and senior decision making processes as well as save the tactical men and women that are doing our nations bidding in battlefields around the world today. The RQ-4 in our distributed ground stations are just two parts of a global system that give us a synchronized ISR network that allow us to maintain information dominance not only today but well into the future. Of course, it's not just technology or iron as you see in this hangar today. To succeed in our business we need a very diverse staff of highly trained and motivated airmen and contractors who enable us to support at the requirement of our national leaders. And maintain and operate not only the platform that you see here but the distributed ground station that operations around the world. So while these aircraft are absolutely fabulous at what they do, its our people as always that make these platforms magic in how they enable us to receive the capability of the mission. While this aircraft will use our Pacific Air Forces facilities and will be bedded down and aligned with our 36th Wing airman here it is Air Combat Command airmen and the detachment Commander Lt. Col. Baker and his his airmen who will enable this platform to fly mission sets everyday. And then the mission control element from where the airplane after takeoff will be flow from inside our facilities at Beale Air Force Base in our contiguous 48. And then the distributed ground stations that can be located around the world to enable the intelligence download and the data such that the process is distributed and exploited as required from stations around the world. And it will be truly a total force effort. It is today a total force effort and we look forward to it being a total force effort here in Guam and Andersen and with the National Guard. So let me close with just an example of how far we have come. It was not several days in the future, three days from now, where we will look back in our nation's history and a gentlemen of which we are all very familiar. A gentleman named Jimmy Doolittle, who on the 24th of Sept. 1929 flew for the first time from take off to landing without -- in a airplane where he had no visual with the outside world. He took off and landed in a platform using instruments, in 1929. We have come a very long way, in our nation, in our technology and with our airman since 1929. I cannot tell you how proud I am to stand here as part of the Combat Air Forces, Air Combat Command, Pacific Air Forces and yes, the US Air Forces in Europe who also just last week received a Global Hawk at Sigonella (Italy) such that we now have capacity for this platform in Europe, in the Middle East and here in the Pacific. We are truly grateful for your attendance and your dedication and your support as you see our RQ-4 start to fly over the skies of Guam and to be able to range the Pacific and to provide that range of capacity, the combat capacity, that will enable us to gather intelligence to met national and joint combined and international requirement and then be able to provide humanitarian, disaster relief, anti-terrorism, anti-piracy capability 24/7, 365. With this incredible high altitude, long endurance persistent developed platform. Again it is tremendous capacity but it is the capability enhanced from our airmen both those physically here and those that will operate it as well as from here through distributed station and bases to bring this capacity to fruition here today Andersen Air Force Base Guam. Thank you very much and I would say that Mr. Dufresne after the ceremony we would like everyone to gather over at the one-fifth scale where Northrop Grumman on behalf, with Mr. Dufresne today will present the small scale model to Gen. Douchette and then we'll have refreshments. And you will have the capability to view not only the platforms here in the hanger today but certainly the capacity the Global Hawk will present to us everyday. Thank you very much.

442: Live with Honor, Die with Dignity

442If you haven't already seen 442: Live with Honor, Die with Dignity the time is now. The film, about the 442nd Regiment Combat Team won a Special Audience Award at this year's Maui Film Festival in June and has since been making the rounds on the West Coast. The movie will play a short run at the:

Ward Consolidated 16 Theaters Friday, September 10, 2010 Special screening: 9am Additional times through the week, check listings

The movie was written and produced by Japanese film maker, Junichi Suzuki. Suzuki tells the very personal accounts of the war as documented by the stories told by the actual soldiers who fought in the 442nd and 100th Battalion. During WWII, soldiers of the 442nd Infantry Regiment, composed mainly of Japanese Americans, fought not only against the enemy, but fought against prejudice, facing severe racial discrimination in America. As documentaries go, 442: Live with Honor, Die with Dignity is very easy to relate to. Our parents all have their stories of WWII and many of us have family or friends who fought or spent time in the internment camps. There is a line in the movie as told by Sen. Daniel Inouye which brings it all home for me. It connects how this group of men, racially discriminated against in the US, fought with such valor and commitment to become the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in the history of the United States military. This movie says as much about bravery as it does about family values. It is a must see! The special screening on September 10th at 9am will also feature opening remarks from George Takei, famed Asian-American actor for his role in Star Trek. He spent several years as a youth in the internment camps both in California and Arkansas. Ryan Ozawa and I got a chance to interview George for this Wed (9/8) Bytemarks Cafe. We asked him how being in the internment camps shaped who he is today:
It was a defining experience in my life. At that time I was too young to really understand what was going on. But in my teenage years, I became very curious about why we had spent our wartime years behind those barbed wire fences. I studied up on it a lot, I had discussions with my father. My father was an extraordinary man, he was the one that suffered the pain of internment and the loss involved in that the most. And yet he was able to say to me that both the strength and the weakness of American democracy is in the fact that it’s a true people’s democracy, and it can be as great as people can be, and it is as fallible as people are. And when Pearl Harbor was bombed, this country was swept up by war hysteria. And the fallibility of Americans, their inability to draw a distinction between the Soldiers of Imperial Japan and American citizens of Japanese ancestry prevailed, and we were summarily rounded up in the most unconstitutional way. There were no charges, no trial, no due process, and we were summarily imprisoned. And how that experience shaped me is that made me an activist on civil rights issues. I was involved in the civil rights movements in the 60s and 70s. I testified for the redress and reparations on the unconstitutional imprisonment of Japanese Americans. And the big civil rights issue of our generation today is equality for gays, lesbians, bisexual and transgendered people. So in that sense the internment was a defining experience for me.
George Takei will also talk at the Japanese Cultural Center on Sunday, September 12, 2010 from 1:30 - 3:30pm. The event is called No Shame!: Talking About the Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Transgender Japanese American Experience in Hawai‘i. George will deliver the keynote speech: Embracing Change.

Admiral’s Barge

Admiral's BargeThat image to the right is not the Admiral's Barge. It's the Sea-Based X-band Radar or SBX. But had it not been for Rear Admiral Dixon Smith and his "Barge", I would have been able to get this close up view. The SBX is one of those vessels you see out of the corner of your eye as you drive on H-1 past Pearl Harbor. It's distinctive appearance cannot escape the golf ball comparisons. You'd have to have a pretty big club to whack that puppy, but I digress. Seeing the SBX does make you think: 1. What is it? and 2. How does it float? The simple answer to 1. is it's a big floating radar. The SBX, part of the DOD's Missile Defense Agency , has a mission is to patrol the Pacific and monitor rouge countries like North Korea. I started to see SBX float into Pearl Harbor a couple years ago ever since North Korea got more active with their ballistic missile tests with claims of having the capabilities to send one all the way to Hawaii. Which brings me to question number 2. The radar system is build on a Russian designed platform originally used for oil rigs. In this photo you can see the huge floats that the main structure stands on. The SBX supports a crew of about 80 personnel. That flat platform you see extending from the main deck is the helicopter landing area. I wondered how people access this vessel once out at sea and that platform was pointed out to me. Admiral's BargeNow getting back to the Admiral's Barge, I (and a few other guests) got invited by Navy Region Hawaii Public Affairs to join Rear Adm. Dixon Smith and his wife Kiki on an afternoon cruise around Pearl Harbor and Ford Island. Besides my wife and I, guests includes Henry Kapono and his wife, Mark Platte (Hawaii News Now) and his wife and Agnes Tauyan (Navy Region Hawaii, Public Affairs) and her husband. The main destination was the Arizona Memorial which I had visited once before decades ago. It was quite a humbling experience to stand in the Memorial atop the sunken USS Arizona where more than a thousand men gave their lives. We cruised up along side the USS Missouri and docked a the Arizona Memorial to spend a few moments to honor those fallen soldiers. The time there was special since the last tour group had already exited leaving the entire Memorial to the 10 of us. The cruise continued around Ford Island, along the NOAA docking, then past Hospital Way on the Hickam AFB side of Pearl Harbor and finally back to Merry Point in the Southeast Loch.  I overheard in conversation, it looks like the NOAA offices, currently spread around O`ahu will consolidate on Ford Island sometime in the near future. Sounds like a good thing since their big ships are located there. The bustle of maritime activity in Pearl Harbor never ceases to amaze.

Mission: C-17

C-17 Air DropThis has been the month of RIMPAC 2010 and the PACOM and PACAF offices are working overtime to expose the media to all the varied activities taking place around Hawaii. This past Friday, several of us joined the crew of the C-17 on a practice mission over Hawaii Island. We met at the Hickam Gate at 4:45am and the flight left at 6:30am early Friday morning from Hickam Air Force Base. According to Lt. Col Andrew Lashikar, Commander of the 535th Airlift Squadron, there are a total of nine C-17's assigned to Hickam Air Force base. Lashikar said, "Participating in RIMPAC gives us a great opportunity to conduct joint exercises with our fellow branch services." The mission over Hawaii Island was for two C-17s to drop off a simulated cargo load of about 12,000 pounds each. The transport planes flew to the military training area Pohakuloa, on the saddle between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. The C-17 went from an altitude of 5000 ft. to 500 feet to facilitate the drop. Two 6000 pound palettes were then jettisoned from the rear of the plane and parachuted to Marines below from Kaneohe Bay, 2nd Battalion. I shot a batch of photos and posted this video of the palettes as they flew out the back of the plane. Lashikar told me that the exercise over Pohakuloa is very much like a mission to Afghanistan. The hilly, rocky terrain is very similar to what you might find in the mountainous areas of Afghanistan. But in addition, Hawaii's environment is also similar to recent C-17 relief efforts to Haiti and American Samoa. The C-17, which is not armed, participates in both support mission in battle zones as well as humanitarian efforts in the Pacific region. C-17 Air DropAfter a brief touchdown in Kona, the second part of the exercise involved an intercept by a squadron of four F-16s from Hickam. The planes could practice escorting a distressed or hostile aircraft with flanking maneuvers and close proximity flying. It was quite the sight to see these fighters flying along side our plane. The photo to the right is out the rear door of the C-17. The challenge for the F-16 was to match the speed of our plane. Quite slow compared to what the F-16 can muster. Several members of our flight got the chance to venture to the edge of the rear of the plane tethered to a cord. To me it was a thin veil of safety as the thought of how futile it might be if you were dangling outside the plane flapping in the wind attached to that tether. Thankfully that scenario only existed in my mind. We safety returned to Hickam, personally much richer for the experience and appreciation of the C-17s support capabilities.


MAARS and GUSS RobotsAlong side the MAARS was another interesting robotic vehicle called GUSS, the Ground Unmanned Support Surrogate. The team shown included (from left to right) Jesse Hurdus, Torc; Alfred Wicks, Virginia Tech; and Capt. Tim Bove, Marine Corp. Warfighting Laboratory. On first appearances, GUSS looks like a Polaris jeep equipped with antennae and sensors.  The units are here for the Marines who are prepared to put GUSS through its paces as part of this month's RIMPAC exercise. GUSS is primarily a support vehicle and is meant to carry gear or wounded personnel as a way to reduce the load from the ground troops. It can travel unmanned along rural unpaved roads, pre-programmed to follow a specified route,  at about the pace of a foot soldier. Talking to the team, it was clear GUSS was not meant to be  all things to all people. It is not an all terrain vehicle, it does not work well in heavy foliage and its not sophisticated like a Mars Rover (and it costs a lot less.) It is based on a modular design and the building blocks use off the shelf technologies which enabled rapid prototyping. The team then focuses on the integration challenges. The development cycle was less than a year and manufacturing of the units took about 6 months.  All four of the development models are here for the exercises. I found it interesting how these entities, Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division, Marine Corp Warfighting Laboratory, Virginia Tech and Torc worked together to produce GUSS. Funding came through the Department of Defense (Dahlgren) to the Warfighting Lab which then developed the specification for the autonomous vehicle. Virginia Tech is  leveraged for their programming and mechanical engineering expertise. Finally Torc is hired to build the units.  Seems like a viable partnership between DOD, University and a commercial company. Keep in mind Torc is not a vendor providing this directly to the military. GUSS is still in prototype. If the military decides to deploy these units, they will then go out to bid for production. Any limitations in GUSS' performance will be identified in these RIMPAC exercises and the team will qualify what needs to be done next.


MAARS and GUSS robotsIn addition to the "big iron" being used in RIMPAC exercises, there are examples of "little iron" robots being field tested to protect and support the ground forces. I got a chance to see a couple of them this past weekend. Shown in the photo is the Modular Advanced Armed Robotic System (MAARS) unit manufactured by Qinetiq. This system packs a M240B medium machine gun along with a spotting scope, an infrared scope and viewing cameras for a 360 degree field of view. The model I saw demonstrated did not have a gun mounted to it. The unit also has rubberized tractor treads making it suitable for rocky terrain. Field engineer Rich Leemon did tell me that it wasn't all-terrain. The MAARS robot is best suited for unpaved rural roads. MAARS is operated by remote control from a suitcase system or from a wearable controller, as modeled here by Jasmine Guevara, PACOM public affairs. The Bellows Marine Corp Training Area where the exercise took place was made up to appear like an Afghani village. You can see the flag on the building and the men in the foreground behind MAARS are role players brought in from San Francisco. Evaluators of the MAARS looked for system vulnerabilities and operational effectiveness by Marines controlling  the units in a free play exercise. The MAARS units run about $350K each and are still in the evaluation stage. In this video Rich Leemon explains the general operations of the MAARS as he guides it back onto the truck. Next up is GUSS.


USS Ronald ReaganThe USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) is just one of 32 vessels in Hawaii for the Rim of the Pacific exercises held every two years. My run on Sunday morning takes me along Pearl Harbor and the Arizona Memorial. I shot this photo from the Visitor Center area. It is pretty amazing how many ships are in the Pearl Harbor lochs. I've never seen air craft carriers double parked before. At the press conference on Monday, June 28, 2010, Vice Admiral Richard Hunt talked about how the first RIMPAC in 1971 was focused on "blue water" exercises. In 2010, the focus is on the littoral. (Wikipedia: The littoral zone refers to that part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.) In this case the waters off the islands. I suspect Bellows will be a site of some of the littoral exercise during these coming weeks. The Navy has newly designed vessels specifically for littoral operations. The USS Freedom is one such vessel participating in RIMPAC 2010. Another is the RSS Supreme from Singapore. The RSS Supreme is part of the Formidable class stealth frigate. If you look at the surface of this vessel you can see the patchwork of radar absorbing panels. It almost looks like it is padded. The RSS Supreme was parked right next to the DDG Atago from Japan. RimPac 2010The Japanese brought two ships, the DDG 177 Atago and the DD 108 Akebono. These two ships were double parked right next to each other. I would have loved to be on the ship when they did that maneuver. The DDG Atago is based on the Arleigh-Burke (Aegis) destroyer design but manufactured by Mitsubishi of Japan. I find it interesting that the show Ryomaden, currently airing on KIKU-TV is a story about Ryoma Sakamoto told by Iwasaki Yataro, founder of Mitsubishi. The show goes into good detail about Yataro's humble beginnings as a bird cage peddler and his ambitions as a businessman. I wonder what he would have thought if he knew someday his company would be furnishing the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) with high tech destroyers based on a US design. I am sure it would have blown his mind. The tour of the DDG Atago was relatively quick but we did get to visit the bridge, deck and officers dining room. I did notice one thing, that ship was the cleanest ship I have every been on. Everything sparkled, even the propeller on the life boat. Today the DDG Atago participated in a anti-piracy inspection drill. If you are interested in more photos of the DDG Atago you can view this set.